UNIVERSAL PRIMARY EDUCATION

In September 2000, the largest number of world leaders in history met together to adopt the “UN Millennium Declaration.” They committed to a new global partnership to reduce extreme poverty, setting out a series of goals with a deadline of 2015.  One of these was to provide Universal Public Education (UPE) for all children.

Uganda had already taken steps to UPE in 1997 by creating free primary education.  For parents of poor families, it was an extraordinary opportunity. Enrollment in the government supported schools increased from 3.1 million pupils in 1996 to 8.4 million in 2013.

In many ways, UPE has been a success, but there are also many problems. This huge increase was faced with too few classrooms, failing infrastructure, too few teachers, latrines, desks and supplies. While the goal is 60 students per class, often 90 students or more is common. Teachers become demoralized and walk away.  While school fees are free, families are often charged for lunch, paper, bricks, and pencils – charges the rural poor cannot pay.

Academic performance, especially in rural areas, plummeted.  Schools that once provided a good education could no longer do so.  An estimated 68% of children who enroll in primary school are likely to drop out before graduating from their 7th and last year.

President Museveni recently warned school administrators that imposing fees on UPE students would not be tolerated. The goals are admirable. Achieving them challenging.

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Bwindi Watoto Primary School (BWS) is a private school, receiving no government funding.  Classes never exceed 30 students, and the quality of teaching is high. Its mission is to serve mostly families of extreme poverty, orphans and gifted children of the poor.   In Bwindi, those parents who can afford to pay fees choose to send their children to Bwindi Watoto, yet this provides only a small portion of the funds needed to run the school.  Without sponsorships, it could not exist.

Test results are some of the very highest in the District.  Children are visibly healthy and happy.

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These are some of the sources used for this article:

http://www.monitor.co.ug/News/National/Museveni-warns-UPE-schools-charging-fees/-/688334/2860488/-/yy9kaf/-/index.html

http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/apr/23/uganda-success-universal-primary-education-falling-apart-upe

http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/eenet_newsletter/news4/page7.php

Watoto Primary School

Bwindi Watoto Primary School was founded in 2008 to offer opportunity to Bwindi’s most vulnerable children. As time went on the most gifted children from Bwindi’s poorest families were also targeted. The school receives no government assistance, which permits the school to keep class size small and the overall quality of education up.

Many of the children who attend Bwindi Watoto are “double” orphans, with no parents or “single” orphans with only one parent. Parents die from AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, diabetes – and perhaps simply despair. Most of our families make less than $500 per year. Children are often imperiled; education not even a possibility.

But there always is a catch. Because Watoto takes no government funding, tuition fees must support the school. But there’s a catch again. Because most parents live in extreme poverty, many cannot pay the entire amount and default. The school is in a constant and difficult balancing act of deciding who must go home, and who can stay in school.

Without outside sponsorships, the school cannot pay its bills. Sustainability is a constant topic of internal conversation, but it is difficult to find a solution.

Yet, National Exam results for the older students are surprisingly good. The highest performing Bwindi students often perform at the top of every class when they attend secondary school.

Today over 300 students attend Watoto. All sponsored students board. Boarding is considered the best way for children to be educated. It provides the best opportunity for consistent academic work, a healthy and positive environment and positive community and more and more nutritious food than they would be likely to receive at home.

Primary education lasts seven years (and, if possible, is preceded by up to three years of nursery school). If able, students begin primary school at approximately age six. It is not uncommon, however, that students start one or more years later because of the lack of money for school fees.

When you sponsor a new student for Watoto, the cost includes both fees and additional money to purchase a mattress (a foam bedroll), a blanket, a set of sheets and personal supplies. The families cannot afford these. When you sponsor a student for his or her second year (and continuing through P6), the cost will include $35 for a few supplies each year, such as: school shoes (many children have no shoes), casual clothing, a school bag, a metal case, personal supplies, etc

Bishop Comboni College (High School)

Bishop Comboni College is one of the best, (nipping at the heels of the top) secondary schools in our District, Kanungu. It is about a 2 ½ – 3-hour drive from Bwindi. Of the 550 students at Comboni, approximately 35-40 are from the Bwindi Watoto Primary School.

While the school was founded by a Catholic order, it is non-denominational and welcomes students of all faiths. Funding comes from a combination of school fees paid by families (or, in our case, sponsors), government funding and funding from the Church. The Head of the school has also been superb at finding grants for infrastructure, including a new dormitory for girls, a new science building and a computer lab.

The school is run by a Board of Governors. A voluntary PTA meets once a year and sends a member to the Board of Governors meeting once a term.

This is our first choice for secondary education for the highest performers, defined very roughly as the top 5-6 students in the Watoto graduating class. The academic quality, the quality of food and sanitation, the facilities and campus – even the extra-curricular activities are all excellent.

When discussing education in Uganda, it is important to understand that all education in rural Uganda is significantly weaker, as well as less expensive than what is found in Kampala. Academic averages are much lower, even for bright students. In general, students ranked below 6th in their last year of primary school at Watoto are often unable to maintain an academic average of 50% – 55% (these are national averages). Receiving averages in the 60’s and 70’s puts a student in the top of the class. Those who receive less than 50% in their third year, may be asked to repeat. Sponsors should not be discouraged, but rather proud of a student receiving an average in the 60’s!

Please see www.BwindiCommunityProgram.org for further information.

SAN GIOVANNI (HIGH) SCHOOL

In 2017, we added San Giovanni as an option for secondary education.

To date, most students sent to secondary are very bright. These students should attend Comboni if at all possible, since they offer one of the top secondary educations in our District.

We hope that working with San Giovanni opens the door to more secondary sponsorships for children who care about school and work hard, but may not be academically strong or for sponsors who may not be able to afford the cost of Comboni. San Giovanni offers a solid academic environment and is significantly less expense than Comboni.

It also offers a good alternative for students who, without secondary school, might be in danger of early marriage, malnutrition, abuse or neglect when still very young.

San Giovanni is only a little more than one hour from Bwindi, and the students will be under the watchful eye of the Primary Headmaster and the Bwindi Watoto Sponsorship Coordinator who will visit often.

Vocational Programs

Most vocational students begin programs immediately after the fourth year of secondary education (Senior 4). This is also what we usually recommend. It is less expensive in the long run for the sponsor and gives the student a more rapid entry into the workforce.

Vocational programs offer a Certificate after one or two to 2 ½ years depending on the program. Students can then begin working full-time, and if they wish, attend evening and weekend classes towards a Diploma. A diploma brings better opportunities and a better income. Some sponsors prefer to fund their student through the Diploma.

Costs vary per program, but run from around $2800 – $3500. 

Here are some of the programs which provide skills currently in demand.

Nursing  \  Scanology  \  Midwifery  \  Electrical  \  Engineering  \  Carpentry and Joinery  \  Construction  \  Plumbing  \  Hotel and Restaurant Management  \  Hotel and Restaurant Catering  \  Chef

Our partner, Bwindi Community Program, handles vocational students and funding for vocational program and for University.

University

To be eligible for University, students must complete all six years of secondary school.  Eligibility for University – and for specific programs – is determined by a combination of elements through a complex system of points.

For rural students, especially those from poor families, attending University is especially rough.  Only 4000 (for a population of 37 million) government scholarships for University are available.

Total costs run between $3000 – $4000 total per year.  Typically, programs are three or four years long.

Nonetheless, even graduation from University does not guarantee work. Many University graduates are underemployed or unemployed.    Some might say it is the same in the US or Europe, but our University graduates do not run a 52.2% unemployment rate for those employable in this age group.  Because of high unemployment, a Master’s degree (one year) has become virtually essential for employment in the field of one’s degree.

Except for the best and the brightest of our Bwindi students, Vocational programs are usually the wiser choice.